Tuesday, August 25, 2020

The Invention of the Saddle Stirrup

The Invention of the Saddle Stirrup It appears such a straightforward thought. Why not add two pieces to the seat, hanging down on either side, for your feet to rest in while you ride a pony? All things considered, people appear to have tamed the pony around 4500 BCE. The seat was designed at any rate as right on time as 800 BCE, yet the principal legitimate stirrup most likely came about approximately 1,000 years after the fact, around 200-300 CE. No one knows who previously developed the stirrup, or even in which part of Asia the designer lived. For sure, this is a profoundly disputable subject among researchers of horsemanship, antiquated and medieval fighting, and the historical backdrop of innovation. Albeit standard individuals likely don't rank the stirrup as one of historys most prominent innovations, up there with paper, black powder and pre-cut bread, military students of history think of it as a genuinely key improvement in human expressions of war and victory. Was the stirrup designed once, with the innovation at that point spreading to riders all over the place? Or on the other hand did riders in various zones think of the thought autonomously? In either case, when did this occur? Shockingly, since early stirrups were likely made of biodegradable materials, for example, cowhide, bone, and wood, we may never have exact responses to these inquiries. First Known Examples of Stirrups So what do we know? Antiquated Chinese Emperor Qin Shi Huangdis earthenware armed force (c. 210 BCE) incorporates various ponies, however their seats don't have stirrups. In models from antiquated India, c. 200 BCE, uncovered footed riders utilize huge toe stirrups. These early stirrups comprised essentially of a little circle of calfskin, wherein the rider could support each enormous toe to give a touch of strength. Reasonable for riders in hot atmospheres, in any case, the large toe stirrup would have been no utilization for booted riders in the steppes of Central Asia or western China. Strangely, there is additionally a little Kushan etching in carnelian that shows a rider utilizing snare style or stage stirrups; these are L-formed bits of wood or horn that don't surround the foot like present day stirrups, but instead give a kind of footstool. This fascinating etching appears to show that Central Asian riders may have been utilizing stirrups around 100 CE, yet it is the main known delineation of that locale, so more proof is expected to presume that stirrups were to be sure being used in Central Asia from such an early age. Present day style Stirrups The soonest known portrayal of current style encased stirrups originates from a clay horse doll that was covered in a First Jin Dynasty Chinese burial place close to Nanjing in 322 CE. The stirrups are triangular fit as a fiddle and show up on the two sides of the pony, yet since this is an adapted figure, it is difficult to decide different insights concerning the development of the stirrups. Luckily, a grave close Anyang, China from roughly a similar date yielded a genuine case of a stirrup. The perished was covered with full gear for a pony, including a gold-plated bronze stirrup, which was roundabout fit as a fiddle. One more burial place from the Jin period in China likewise contained a genuinely extraordinary pair of stirrups. These are progressively triangular fit as a fiddle, made of calfskin bound around a wooden center, at that point secured with enamel. The stirrups were then painted with mists in red. This beautifying theme infers the Heavenly Horse configuration discovered later in both China and Korea. The primary stirrups for which we have an immediate date are from the burial place of Feng Sufu, who passed on in 415 CE. He was a sovereign of Northern Yan, only north of the Koguryeo Kingdom of Korea. Fengs stirrups are very perplexing. The adjusted top of every stirrup was produced using a bowed bit of mulberry wood, which was secured with overlaid bronze sheets on the external surfaces, and iron plates secured with enamel within, where Fengs feet would have gone. These stirrups are of commonplace Koguryeo Korean plan. Fifth-century tumuli from Korea appropriate additionally yield stirrups, including those at Pokchong-dong and Pan-gyeje. They likewise show up in divider paintings and puppets from the Koguryeo and Silla administrations. Japan additionally embraced the stirrup in the fifth century, as indicated by burial place workmanship. By the eighth century, the Nara time frame, Japanese stirrups were open-sided cups as opposed to rings, intended to keep the riders feet from getting trapped on the off chance that the person tumbled off (or was shot off) of the pony. Stirrups Reach Europe In the interim, European riders managed without stirrups until the eighth century. The presentation of this thought (which prior ages of European antiquarians credited to the Franks, instead of Asia), took into account the advancement of overwhelming mounted force. Without the stirrups, European knights couldn't have gotten onto their ponies wearing overwhelming covering, nor might they be able to have jousted. Undoubtedly, the Middle Ages in Europe would have been very extraordinary without this straightforward minimal Asian innovation. Remaining Questions: So where does this leave us? Such a significant number of inquiries and past presumptions stay not yet decided, given this fairly insufficient proof. How did the Parthians of antiquated Persia (247 BCE - 224 CE) turn in their seats and shoot a parthian (separating) shot from their bows, in the event that they didn't have stirrups? (Obviously, they utilized profoundly curved seats for additional soundness, however this despite everything appears to be unimaginable.) Did Attila the Hun truly bring the stirrup into Europe? Or on the other hand were the Huns ready to strike dread into the hearts of all Eurasia with their horsemanship and shooting aptitudes, even while riding without stirrups? There is no proof that the Huns really utilized this innovation. Did old exchange courses, presently little recalled, guarantee that this innovation spread quickly across Central Asia and into the Middle East? Did new refinements and advancements in stirrup configuration wash to and fro between Persia, India, China and even Japan, or was this a mystery that lone bit by bit penetrated Eurasian culture? Until new proof is uncovered, we will just need to ponder. Sources Azzaroli, Augusto. An Early History of Horsemanship, Leiden: E.J. Brill Company, 1985.Chamberlin, J. Edward. Pony: How the Horse Has Shaped Civilizations, Random House Digital, 2007.Dien, Albert E. The Stirrup and Its Effect on Chinese Military History, Ars Orientalis, Vol 16 (1986), 33-56.Sinor, Denis. The Inner Asian Warriors, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 101, No. 2 (Apr. - June, 1983), 133-144.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Economics Coursework Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Financial aspects Coursework - Essay Example Moderateness of the clients: As home loans have gotten less exorbitant, the reasonableness of a normal resident has hence picked up development. In addition, contracts are more promptly accessible than previously and in this manner a shopper is bound to profit himself an advance and increment his general arrangement of decisions. Along these lines bringing about an expansion in the interest move of the purchaser. (Neate, 2013) b. Downturn: The weights have twofold effect on the interest shifts. Not just it has diminished the buying intensity of a buyer however it has likewise removed numerous arrangements of decisions where an individual used to contribute. As downturn is near, the greater part of the ventures are seen as more hazardous while these are additionally not expected to gain exceptional yields. In this way, potential speculators, particularly the enormous ones glance at lodging as a sheltered road for venture as the profits that it procures are very steady while the capita l additions are additionally a piece of the venture. This additionally impacts the interest bend to move on its right side and increment the general interest of the house claiming. (Neate, 2013) (O’sullivan, 2008) c. Group Sentiment: It will be noticed that the development of house costs has as of now grown out of the pace of development in the advances stretched out as home loans. Such just uncovers a point that the overall population is following the pattern. This can be because of reasons, for example, the dread of expanded home costs after the blast that these costs have gotten. Besides, its motivation may likewise be as those speculators who have looked it as a brilliant chance of capital increases and in this manner making a counterfeit air pocket of cost swelling that will at some point or another burst out. (Rowley, 2013) d. Desires: As costs have flooded up so are the desires for the individuals. As proposed in an ongoing article, the expense of normal home may go up by 50,000 pounds over the span of the following multi year. Besides, remembering the opinions, the government’s ongoing move to give intrigue let loose credit to 600,000 pounds has just moved the pattern further and have by and by offered raise to the requests of the majority. (Lambert, 2013) If we guide our consideration toward the variables that have may have affected the flexibly side of the UK’s house possessing marvel, the most significant factor that gets has moved the gracefully bend incorporates the effect of fares whose baffling exhibition has affected the flexibly side of the previously mentioned wonder. From that point forward, the administration has concentrated increasingly more on flexibly side by empowering the development of more houses. Additionally, the moneylenders have been too permissive towards purchasers as well as towards the venders also, since by supporting them in financing their tasks they are pushing the flexibly bend too, which for this s ituation is toward its right. In an ongoing move, the administration propelled subsidizing plan which permitted banks to benefit themselves cheap financing that permitted the bringing down of the loan fees whose effects were additionally observed on the interest side. (Rowley, 2013) 2. As should be obvious in the table underneath that the benefits will increment to 40,000 pounds if the charge is diminished from 10 pounds to 8 pounds: Fare Demand Total Revenue New Cost Profit 8 6 480 440 40 10 4 400 410 - 10 12 3 360 400 - 40 (O’sullivan, 2008) a. The following are the computations required if there should arise an occurrence of value elasticity’s of interest by the midpoint recipe technique just as rate change

Monday, August 10, 2020

Strategies for Getting Through a Panic Attack

Strategies for Getting Through a Panic Attack Panic Disorder Coping Print Strategies for Getting Through a Panic Attack By Katharina Star, PhD facebook linkedin Katharina Star, PhD, is an expert on anxiety and panic disorder. Dr. Star is a professional counselor, and she is trained in creative art therapies and mindfulness. Learn about our editorial policy Katharina Star, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on July 29, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on September 22, 2019 Tim Kitchen/The Image Bank/Getty Images More in Panic Disorder Coping Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Related Conditions In This Article Table of Contents Expand Take a Breath Loosen Up Change Your Mind Confront Panic Follow Recommendations View All Back To Top If you suffer from panic attacks, then youve been there before. You experience difficulty breathing, rapid heart rate, muscle tension, and dizziness. These physical sensations are often accompanied by negative and frightening thoughts. You may fear losing control of yourself and quite possibly your sanity. Despite these overwhelming feelings, there are ways you can regain a sense of control when panic strikes. Below are some simple tips you can use to help ease common symptoms of a panic attack. Take a Breath Panic attacks can literally feel like they are taking your breath away. You may feel like you are hyperventilating, choking, or experiencing shortness of breath. Managing your changes in breathing can be the key to reducing panic symptoms. During an attack, try to bring your attention to your breath. How to Direct Your Breath Start by breathing slowly and purposely. This will counteract the shallow breathing characterized by most attacks. If possible, place your hands on your stomach and fill your belly with breath. When you inhale, you will feel your center rise and expand. As you exhale, it will then contract inward. These deliberate breaths will assist in soothing your body and mind. It may also be helpful to count each breath. Such as counting your first full breath in and out as one, the next breath in and out as two, and so on. This will not only help you breathe better, but it will also help you feel calmer by distracting your mind. The Benefits of Box Breathing for Stress Management Loosen Up When panic sets in, you may notice pain, numbness, and overall tensions throughout your body. By spending a few moments trying to relax your body, you can start to improve some of your physical discomforts. Letting go of this strain will also help relieve your anxious thoughts. Work your way up to your entire arm, tightening and loosening each set of muscles, moving from the forearm up to the shoulder. Then switch to the left side. Do the same for your legs, starting with your right foot. Continue to focus on separate muscle groups, including your back and shoulders, until you have worked your way all the way up to the top of your head. Dont forget to relax your facial muscles, as there is often a lot of tension held there. Try to soften your forehead, relax your jaw, and ease your neck. Change Your Mind Even when in full-blown panic mode, you may logically recognize that your fears are exceeding what is warranted by the situation. Despite wanting the panic to stop, your thoughts may be keeping you from feeling calm. When faced with negative thoughts  associated with a panic attack, try to distract your mind and refocus. As the panic attack takes its course, divert your attention to more pleasant thoughts. Instead of fearing the situation you are in, try thinking about the positive aspects of your life, such as a loved one, a beloved pet, or a favorite leisure activity. It may be helpful to think about something that makes you laugh or to visualize a tranquil scene. You can try to think of a funny joke or imagine a beautiful sunset. Affirm more positive statements to yourself. For example, repeat to yourself, I am okay, I am safe, or This will pass. Over time your negative thinking pattern will begin to give way to more encouraging views. Can I Stop a Panic Attack From Happening? Confront Panic One of the most effective ways to start managing panic attacks is to persistently face your fears. If your attacks are situational, such as being in crowds, try not to avoid these situations. Such exposure will help you to work through panic and will send the message to your fears that you are ultimately in control of them. If your panic attacks are unpredictable, meaning that no particular triggers bring them on, you will also need to tackle the panic as it comes. Remember that by becoming self- aware during a panic attack, even when it comes on unexpectedly, can help you cope with its symptoms. Remain aware of how youre feeling and remind yourself that it will not overtake you. Follow Treatment Recommendations Your physician or health care provider may recommend medication to help treat your panic attacks. Anti-anxiety medications, known as benzodiazepines, can provide fast relief for panic symptoms. Frequently prescribed benzodiazepines include Xanax (Alprazolam), Ativan (Lorazepam), Valium (Diazepam), and Klonopin (Clonazepam). Benzodiazepines are generally prescribed during the initial treatment phase as a short-term remedy for panic attacks. Antidepressants, such as Prozac (Fluoxetine), and Zoloft (Sertraline), are a commonly prescribed type of medication used in more long-term prevention of panic attacks. Since antidepressants can take several weeks to be effective, it is important to take them consistently to improve your symptoms. Benzodiazepines Short-term relief Take shortly before a panic-inducing situation, like prior to boarding an airplane or giving a speech Antidepressants Long-term prevention   Take daily to help alleviate feelings of anxiety and weaken strength and duration of panic attacks   Next time you are met with a panic attack, apply these techniques so that you can begin to regain some control. Keep in mind that these strategies wont work every time or for everyone, but try them out and see what helps you. These skills will be most effective if you practice them when you are not in a state of panic. By rehearsing them, they will become easier to use and will be more ingrained in your memory for when you will need them the most. You may also want to write them down and keep them with you so that you have them during panic-inducing situations. With patience, perseverance, and consistency, your panic attacks can be managed. You are most likely much braver than you think you are. Over time, you may begin to recognize your own courage as you continue to conquer panic attacks. Find Relief With An Online Anxiety Support Groups

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Dramatic Devices in Williams Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Essay

Dramatic Devices in Williams Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Williams instinctively understands the loneliness of a human being - his or her constant and desperate attempt that is to escape the reality that is there loneliness and their subsequent failure to do so. Williams portrays this loneliness to an audience through the spatial distances on stage between characters, which is suggested in the stage direction. Margaret is alone. It is also emphasised through symbolism and the dialogue between characters. Big Mama accuses Margaret of not satisfying Brick in bed and of Bricks break down. After this accusation, Margaret is alone, completely alone. By repeating this stage direction Williams is†¦show more content†¦It is also why she oscillates between convincing Brick of her sexuality and her obsession with children. Ive borne no children, Im childless, you cant have babies, they gloat over us being childless. This obsession makes her very insecure. When Big Mama starts questioning, Dyou make Brick happy in bed? She is observing tha t Maggies sexuality isnt enough, therefore this breaks Maggies crutch and leaves her completely alone and isolated. As a defence mechanism, Maggie creates another personality for herself, I am Maggie the cat! Williams uses this animal as it has many connotations. A cat has connotations of being a fighter and a survivor and also of being a solitary animal. Maggie has all of these qualities but at this point in the play she is especially showing that of a solitary animal. The dialogue also displays the isolation between the two characters. Maggie does a lot of talking, You know, our sex life didnt just peter out in the normal wayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦the best lookin man in the crowd-followed me upstairs and tried to force his way in the powder room with me, followed me to the door and tried to force his way in! These lengthy speeches often have no particular or relevant point but are just to fill the silence. Bricks dialogue mainly consists of short,Show MoreRelatedOthello, By William Shakespeare1923 Words   |  8 Pagesdifferent ways and interpret things differently as well. In the 3 texts dissatisfaction or complication is shown. Firstly in Othello love is presented as ephemeral and transient while atonement love is presented as unrequited and finally in cat on a hot tin roof love is presented as painful and troublesome due to unreciprocated feelings. The tragic plot of Othello hinges on the potential of the villain, Iago, to deceive other characters, above all Roderigo and Othello, through encouraging them toRead MoreEssay about Summary of History of Graphic Design by Meggs14945 Words   |  60 Pagesexception of Celtic pattern-making, book design and illumination had sunk to a low in most of Europe. - Many people feared that the year 1000 AD would be the end of the world. - On New Years Ever, 999 AD, many people stripped naked, and lay on their roofs waiting for final judgment. - By 1150 AD, Bibles were becoming massively produced. - During the 1200’s, the rise of universities created an expanding market for books. - The Book of Revelation had a surge of unexplained popularity in England andRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 Pagesthrough trial and error, Henry Ford’s talented team of production managers pioneered the development of the moving conveyor belt and thus changed manufacturing practices forever. Although the technical aspects of the move to mass production were a dramatic ï ¬ nancial success for Ford and for the millions of Americans who could now afford cars, for the workers who actually produced the cars many human and social problems resulted. With simpliï ¬ cation of the work process, workers grew to hate the monotony

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Cosmology in Miltons Paradise Lost - 2810 Words

The Oxford English Dictionary defines cosmos as the world or universe as an ordered and harmonious system, from the Greek, kosmos, referring to an ordered and/or ornamental thing. When God created the world he had this in mind. To have a harmonious system in the universe where everything can live in peace and free of all worry. God was on top and everything was peaceful. Until the angles in Miltons Paradise Lost had a fight. After the fight God banished these bad angels and had the last part of his universe created, hell. This completed a very complex picture of Miltons vision of the universe in the beginning. The encyclopedic writers of the early Middle Ages communicated a modest assortment of basic cosmological information,†¦show more content†¦Universal agreement of such magnitude emerged not because the educated felt compelled to yield to the authority of Aristotle, but because his cosmological picture offered a persuasive and satisfying account of the world as they perceived it. Nonetheless, certain elements of Aristotelian cosmology quickly became the objects of criticism and debate, and it is here, in the attempt to flesh out and fine-tine Aristotelian cosmology and bring it into harmony with the opinions of other authorities and with biblical teaching, that medieval scholars made their cosmological contribution. But the most interesting point about Milton ´s cosmology is this: why, when he knew of the discoveries Galileo had made with his telescope-as Book VIII clearly proves-and must have accepted the validity of the Copernican cosmology, wich our planetary system revolves, did Milton base his universe upon the Ptolematic pattern? The answer lies in the literary advantages of accepting the older though erreoneous concept: it was known, and Copernicanism was strongly resisted and only slowly accepted; the Ptolematic system was orderly, it laid down limits within wich Milton found it easier to work, and it made God and man the two ends of a chain-man can ascend, onward and everShow MoreRelatedThe Influences on Genesis1288 Words   |  5 Pagesarchetypes of both world religions and a number of literary and artistic traditions. The idea of a paradise arises in a vast number of traditions, and in many of these traditions this story of a paradise is one of paradise lost. Of course, this arche type has continued has continued since the recording of Genesis, not only directly in works such as Miltons description of a Christian paradise that is lost and found, but also indirectly in the telling of mythical sagas such as the books of J.R.R. TolkienRead MorePsychological Anxieties in English Literature Essay1965 Words   |  8 Pages and man’s achievement rather than finding solace in belief in a theological God or supernatural or divine forces. Man became self-centric and the horizons of knowledge in all fields began to widen and man’s interest in several branches such as cosmology, psychology, astronomy, anthropology etc. increased manifolds. Renaissance men increased his thirst for thinking about future and his own existence precarious or life unsatisfactory, there emerged a spirit of restlessness, adventure, wonder and evenRead More Angels Essay5539 Words   |  23 Pagesthose images Description Of The Angelic Hierarchy All three major religions of the Western world, Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, as well as virtually all of the worlds other systems of religious belief, include celestials in their cosmologies. Their scriptures all contain references to angelic int erventions. Angels, like people, belong to families or clans. Many names have been given to them, but in the opinion of a number of angel historians, the most familiar can be arranged in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Fahrenheit 451 Lit. Notebook Free Essays

Phi Cao Carlin – 1 English IIK 30, January 2013 1. Character: Clarisse Quote: â€Å"I sometimes think drivers don’t know what grass is, or flowers, because they never see them slowly,† she said. â€Å"If you showed a driver a green blur, Oh yes! He’d say, that’s grass! A pink blur! That’s a rose garden! White blurs are houses Brown blurs cows. We will write a custom essay sample on Fahrenheit 451 Lit. Notebook or any similar topic only for you Order Now My uncle drove slowly on a highway once. He drove forty miles an hour and they jailed him for two days. Isn’t that funny and sad too? (1. ) Analysis: As Clarisse and Montag meet for the first time, she asks a series of mysterious questions that no one in the dystopia would ever even think of. The statements and questions display how wise she is and how there are very few people like her in this society that can actually see the enjoyments in life and nature. She attempts to make Montag understand that this world they live in, everything moves so fast, they need to slow down every once in a while and appreciate the simple pleasures in life. Because their society is overtaken by technology they are convinced that it is the only way to make them happy. Quote: â€Å"Are you happy? † (1. 10) By asking a simple question like this, it challenged Montag to think beyond his usual capacity, thinking outside of his normal life. He’s began to have thoughts about his definition of true happiness. He starts to realize he’s not truly happy, that’s why it took him a while to respond to her question. This quote by Clarisse is one of the most important quotes throughout the story. Without this quote, Montag wouldn’t doubt himself about his true happiness. 2. Symbols: Fire Quote: â€Å"We shall this day light such a candle, by God’s grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out. † (1. 40) Analysis: As the old woman whose house was about to be burned due to her love for books, she screams to Montag about â€Å"Master Ridley† and â€Å"playing the man. † As the story continues, Beatty reveals to Montag this quote said by a british man named Latimer. After critically thinking Montag learns that there are things in the world hat are worth living and dying for which no one in this society is willing to do. For the woman it symbolizes unyielding strength, determination and dedication. Quote: The fire was gone, then back again, like a winking eye. He stopped, afraid he might blow the fire out with a single breath. But the fire was there and he approached warily, from a long way off. It took the better part of fifteen minutes b efore he drew very close indeed to it, and then he stood looking at it from cover. That small motion, the white and red color, a strange fire because it meant a different thing to him. It was not burning. It was warming. (3. 145) Analysis: Throughout the whole story Montag saw fire as nothing but destruction and he took pleasure into book burning at the beginning. So now seeing that this flame as a nice warming home for him, it begins to make him question. This small warm-felt fire began to make him see what he’s been so clueless about all along. Burning books wasn’t the solution but the problem. He then reconsiders about what Clarisse said about firemen. What if his job was really to stop burning books and rather than starting them? How to cite Fahrenheit 451 Lit. Notebook, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Freshmen blues free essay sample

The colleges did was a semester-long course which only helps with improving their social skills and prevent them from quitting or transferring. Well unfortunately it did help with those skills but did not help them academically. This is proven by an estimate, about one- third Of college freshmen nationally dont return for their sophomore year. The college had to find a better solution to connect with their student or it was going to mess with there money. Secondly he explained how the colleges did not really do anything at first to help improve the freshmen blues.This was shown by student that attend stuff about skits that promote racial diversity and sexual health and discourage drinking, So basically they care about the sexual health of students and basically discourage them from drinking. Nothing about really helping them through the freshmen blues. Then lastly, the colleges are trying to make the classes smaller in size so it is more one on fifty then one on ninety students. We will write a custom essay sample on Freshmen blues or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page So the students feel like they are someone instead of just a number in a lecture. This is mainly because many universities simply can no longer afford to lose them. Also the universities are learning that large collages are always accused of not paying enough attention to their students especially the new ones. Since they can not lose anymore students they have made some improvements to the way they run their collages.